This volume provides the first comprehensive survey of land tenure in the Middle East over several millennia up to modern times. Its thirty-two papers bring to this theme an interdisciplinary approach and enable the reader to follow the various threads – historical, social, economic, political, legal – related to the evaluation and development of land tenure systems in the Middle East. Land tenure is a vital element in social transformation; it is quite literally the backdrop to history. Where the Middle East is concerned this theme has not received the concentrated and collective treatment it richly deserves. This volume is of great importance to all who are interested in the history, society, economy, and agriculture of the Middle East, and scholars of land tenure in other regions of the world will find in it ample material for comparative interpretation.
The author examines the rural politics of the provinces of Damascus and Tripoli in Ottoman Syria in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. He considers the various kinds of rural leadership as represented by the most powerful dynasties that dominated various regions of the Ottoman Empire, and focuses on six specific Syrian dynasties, from origin to decline. This work draws on archival material from Istanbul and Damascus, together with Ottoman and Syrian chronicles, biographical and travel literature, and other Turkish, Arabic, and Western contemporary sources. The first two centuries of the Ottoman period in Syria have been little known before the publication of this work, which sheds important light on Syria at that time.
George Miles was the curator of Islamic coins for the American Numismatic Society (ANS) and later their chief curator and executive director. The essays in this volume, chosen to mark his retirement, concentrate on the subjects that occupied his scholarly research: numismatics, epigraphy, iconography, and the history of the Islamic, pre-Islamic, and Byzantine worlds.
There are essentially two themes to these essays. The first is an attempt to define the relative social status of women holding certain titles, and the second is to show that harems and concubines did not exist in the Middle Kingdom, at least as recognized institutions. The former theme is approached primarily through translations of official and religious titles held by women and their husbands, the latter theme by examining some key terms said to refer to harems and concubines. Further essays give new interpretations to the famous genealogy of Tomb 9 at El-Kab and the so-called “harem" of King Nebhepetre Mentuhotep.
Ancient texts up to the coming of Islam are gathered in this volume, translated, many for the first time, from numerous ancient languages, and provided with a full annotation. The first four chapters cover texts of general interest as well as more specific references to geology, hydrography, and industries, while the final chapter is a complete collection of the texts, which describe the original afforestation of Lebanon and its destruction. Unfortunately, no subsequent volumes were published.
The titles collected in this index belong primarily to the Middle Kingdom, from the reunification in the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Thirteenth. The book is in two parts, Part One being the index proper. Individual entries give the Egyptian spelling, transliteration, translation, and references to where each title appears and where it is discussed. Part Two is a glossary of the individual words used in titles with a discussion of their meanings and uses. The work is an invaluable guide to the researcher interested in the study of the social and political structure of the Middle Kingdom.